ABSTRACT: Lesbians and bisexual women encounter barriers to health care that include concerns about confidentiality and disclosure, discriminatory attitudes and treatment, limited access to health care and health insurance, and often a limited understanding as to what their health risks may be. Health care providers should offer quality care to all women regardless of sexual orientation. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses equitable treatment for lesbians and bisexual women and their families, not only for direct health care needs, but also for indirect health care issues. Sexual orientation is an enduring emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction that one feels toward men or women or both 1.
Make no mistake, gay and lesbian people have more positive attitudes toward bisexual women and men compared to heterosexuals. However, they harbor more negativity toward bisexuals than toward other gay men and lesbian women, and they endorse more bi-negativity than do bisexuals or other sexual minorities including those who identify as asexual , queer, and pansexual. So, why are many lesbians so anti-bi? A new study recently published in the journal Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity suggests that this might be due to what the researchers call the androcentric desire hypothesis : The fact that people gay men and lesbians alike perceive bisexuals as being more sexually attracted to men than they are to women. In both cases, the sexuality of bisexual women and men appears to be perceived as oriented toward men. Confirming past research, lesbian women were more negative toward bisexuals than were gay men, and they were more negative toward bisexual women than gay men were toward bisexual men, in particular. Furthermore, as the graph below shows, the results mostly supported the androcentric desire hypothesis.
Research has shown that the following are some of the most common health concerns faced by lesbian and bisexual women. While they may not all apply to everyone, they are important concerns for lesbian and bisexual women and their health care providers to be aware of. Compounding this problem are barriers accessing support services, lack of training on the part of the service providers and discrimination in shelters. Looking for a health care provider is never easy, but for LGBT individuals, the search is especially challenging. Paula M. Neira, a nurse educator, lawyer and former naval officer, explains the importance of coming out and offers advice for finding the right doctor. Research has also discovered higher rates of smoking, cocaine and marijuana use among lesbian and bisexual women than heterosexual women.
Figure S3. Figure S4. Figure S5. Table S5. Assisted reproduction including artificial insemination samples : pregnancy outcomes unabridged. Few data exist regarding pregnancy in lesbian and bisexual LB women. To determine the likelihood of LB women becoming pregnant, naturally or assisted, in comparison with heterosexual women. Systematic review of papers published 1 January to 23 June